The United States has entered into an exchange and military visit agreement with the Government of Mongolia.22 As part of the agreement, Article X deals with the criminal justice of U.S. personnel in Mongolia. The language of the agreement states that “the military authorities of the United States have the right to exercise in Mongolia all the criminal and disciplinary jurisdiction over the United States conferred upon them by the military laws of the United States. All crimes against the laws of Mongolia committed by a member of the United States The armed forces are referred to the competent authorities of the United States for investigation and injunction. 23 The agreement allows the Government of Mongolia to request the United States to relinquish jurisdiction in cases of alleged criminal conduct that has nothing to do with official duty.24 The United States is not required to relinquish jurisdiction, but only to “favourably consider” such a request25 Between March 2003 and August 2010, the United States has conducted military operations in Iraq. First to remove Saddam Hussein`s regime from power, and then to fight the remnants of the old regime and other threats to the stability of Iraq and its post-Saddam government. At the end of 2007, the United States and Iraq signed a declaration of principles for a long-term relationship of cooperation and friendship between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America.111 The strategic agreement provided for in the declaration was ultimately to replace the United Nations mandate, according to which the United States and its allied forces are responsible for Iraq`s contribution to Iraq`s security, which ended on 31 December 2008. .112 The declaration was rooted in an August 26, 2007 communiqué, signed by five political leaders in Iraq, calling for a long-term relationship with the United States. In accordance with the declaration, the parties undertook to “begin as soon as possible with a view to reaching, by 31 July 2008, agreements between the two Governments in the political, cultural, economic and security fields”. 113 Among other things, the declaration announced the intention of the parties: On February 10, 2011, Mp. Lynn Woolsey H.R.
651 introduced the United States Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) Act of 2011.64 The Bill requires the Speaker to “attempt to negotiate with Afghanistan and enter into a bilateral status-of-forces agreement”65 In addition, if the law provides that the law requires that the agreement explicitly state that the presence of US forces in Afghanistan is temporary, that a permanent deployment is prohibited, and that all troops must withdraw from the country within one year of the agreement.66 The most frequently discussed topic in a SOFA is legal protection against criminal prosecution, granted to the United States. . . .